Transliteration

The transliteration follows the rules established by the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft, as submitted to the 19th International Congress of Orientalists held in Rome in 1935.

The only two exceptions are the following: a) the diphthongs are transliterated as aw and ay; b) the lām of the article is always retained. Furthermore, when the ridge, or kursī, of b, t, ṯ, n, and y, is unpointed in the Arabic source manuscript(s), it is reproduced in the transliteration by an ‘x’.

#LetterNameLatin (mono)Latin (double)Value
1آ‎Alifʾa1
2ﺏ‎bb2
3ﺕ‎tt400
4Thāth500
5ﺝ‎Dschīmǧj3
6ﺡ‎Ḥāhh8
7ﺥ‎Chākh600
8ﺩ‎Dāldd4
9ﺫ‎Dhāldh700
10ﺭ‎rr200
11ﺯ‎Zāinzz7
12ﺱ‎Sīnss60
13ﺵ‎Schīnšsh300
14ﺹ‎Sādss90
15ﺽ‎Dāddd800
16ﻁ‎Ṭātt9
17ﻅ‎zz900
18ﻉ‎ʿAinʿc70
19ﻍ‎Ghainġgh1000
20ff80
21ﻕ‎Qāfqq100
22ك‎Kāfkk20
23ﻝ‎Lāmll30
24ﻡ‎Mīmmm40
25ﻥ‎Nūnnn50
26ﻩ‎hh5
27و‎Wāwww6
28ي‎yy10

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